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Explain in detail the pharmacological effects of the veterinary drug colistin sulfate in veterinary clinical applications
Colistin sulfate Powder

Colistin sulfate is a natural antibiotic, and its antibacterial mechanism is to adsorb bacterial cells and combine with the escape of lipoproteins in the cell membrane, thereby causing cell death. Its bactericidal effect has the following three characteristics, one is "large", the second is "fast", and the third is "strong".

First, the size of the bacterium is large, the function is large, and the volume is four times larger than the molecule of the general pathogenic bacteria, which occupies a space advantage, inhibits the growth and reproduction of harmful bacteria, and allows the bacterium to reproduce rapidly.
Second: it is fast metabolism and fast reproduction, and it can multiply 100,000 times in four hours, and the standard bacteria of general bacteria can only reproduce 6 times in four hours.
Third: it is a strong vitality. No wet state, low temperature resistance -60 °C, high temperature resistance 280 °C; Resistant to strong acids, strong alkalis, antibacterial disinfection, high oxygen (aerobic reproduction), hypoxic (anaerobic reproduction). Secondly, it is highly moisturizing. Polyglutaline, a natural material with excellent strength, is formed as a protective film for the soil and prevents the loss of nutrients and water.
In addition, the decomposition of organic matter is strong. At the same time of proliferation, highly active decomposition enzymes are released, which decompose difficult macromolecules into usable small molecules. Finally, it is antibacterial and intoxicating. It has the advantage of occupying space and inhibiting the growth and reproduction of harmful microorganisms such as harmful bacteria and pathogenic bacteria.
At the same time, there is also a characteristic that Bacillus polymyxo produces abundant metabolic products while reproducing, synthesizing a variety of organic acids, enzymes, physiological activities and other substances, and other nutrients that are easy to be used. It can decompose the odorous gas and organic matter, organic sulfide, organic nitrogen, etc. produced by manure and bedding in livestock and poultry houses, and greatly improve the air environment of the breeding site.
█ Pharmacological properties
1. Pharmacological properties
Colistin sulfate is a white or yellowish powder, and the pure product is a white or off-white powder, which is easily soluble in water. Slightly odorous or almost odorless, bitter taste, hygroscopic, easily soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, almost insoluble in acetone, chloroform or ether (Pharmacopoeia Commission of the People's Republic of China 2000) The aqueous solution is left-handed, and the pure powder has stable performance and can be stored at 100 °C for 9 days, and at 40 °C for 60 days, and the vitality remains unchanged. The pH value is 3-7.5 is more stable, easy to decompose in strong acidic and alkaline solutions, heat-resistant, not easy to absorb in the digestive tract, rapid excretion, low toxicity, no side effects, soluble in water, not easy to produce drug-resistant strains, is one of the safest livestock and poultry growth promotion antibiotics.
2. Pharmacodynamic function
Colistin sulfate is an alkaline peptide antibiotic and a narrow-spectrum fungicide. It is used to prevent and control the infection of sensitive bacteria and promote the growth of livestock and poultry. It has strong antibacterial effect on gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Pasteurella, dysentery bacillus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus and Haemophilus.
Mainly by damaging the bacterial cell membrane and increasing its permeability, the amino acids, purines, pyrimidines and other secretions in the bacteria can also affect the nucleoplasm and ribosomal functions, resulting in bacterial death.
3. Pharmacokinetics
After oral administration, most of the drug is excreted in the stool, and a small amount of the drug is excreted in the form of the original substance through glomerular filtration. It is not easy to develop antimicrobial resistance to bacteria, has low toxicity, no side effects, and has a very low absorption rate.
█ Indications and applications
The effect on bacteria is mainly used to treat gastrointestinal infections caused by gram-negative bacteria. In layman's terms, it can prevent and treat bacterial diseases in poultry, waterfowl and livestock, especially duck infectious serositis, necrotizing enteritis, chicken Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus pasteuris caused by enterotoxic septicemia syndrome, enterotoxic syndrome in piglets, mink, foxes and raccoon dogs.
In particular, the clinical manifestations are a pathology of sudden onset and death soon (requiring injection of drugs). Sick ducks are drowsy, depressed, isolated, loss of appetite or abandoned, shaking head and neck, body temperature rises, shortness of breath, discharge of secretions from the eyes and nose, red and swollen eyes, weakness of the legs, movement disorders, paroxysmal spasms, and yellow-green foul-smelling feces.
On the other hand, the effect on coccidia. It has an inhibitory effect on secondary infection, especially for loose feathers caused by chronic cecum and intestinal cocccia in the egg-laying period, refractory enteritis, diarrhea or loose stool, bloody or rotten tomato-like feces, feces containing undigested feed, decreased feed intake, slow growth, weight loss, dehydration and other symptoms.
█ Adverse reactions and precautions
When used to promote growth, the amount should be less than the preventive amount. When choosing products, it is necessary to pay attention to the main ingredient is colistin sulfate, and its specifications and proportions.
The treatment should be symptomatic Gram-negative bacteria, which has no effect on Gram-positive bacteria (except Staphylococcus aureus and hemolytic streptococcus) and fungi. Livestock and poultry slaughter or product marketing need to stop the drug for 7 days.
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